Coal analysis

Moisture held within the coal itself is known as inherent moisture and is analyzed quantitatively. The kerogen in coals are mostly type 3 and 4 kerpgen.

coal analysis calculations

It is considered the lowest rank of coal, used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power generation. More recently, it is used to study sedimentary organic matter from kerogen.

The high volatile matter content indicates easy ignition of fuel and the ash content is important in the design of the furnace grate, combustion volume, pollution control equipment and ash handling systems of a furnace.

air dried basis coal analysis

The term 'maceral' in reference to coal is analogous to the use of the term 'mineral' in reference to igneous or metamorphic rocks. Coal which has ash that fuses into a hard glassy slag known as clinker is usually unsatisfactory in furnaces as it requires cleaning.

Float Sink Analysis is used to separate non-coal cavings from cuttings samples.

Analysis of coal in chemistry

Loss of weight represents moisture and volatile matter. Generally, the onset of oil generation is correlated with a reflectance of 0. Most furnaces are designed to remove ash as a powdery residue. Crucible swelling index free swelling index [ edit ] The simplest test to evaluate whether a coal is suitable for the production of coke is the free swelling index test. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. It is also abundant in kerogen, derived from the same biogenic precursors as coals, namely land plants and humic peats. Ash content may be determined as air dried basis and on oven dried basis. Coal which has ash that fuses into a hard glassy slag known as clinker is usually unsatisfactory in furnaces as it requires cleaning. It helps in setting the minimum limit on the furnace height and volume and easier ignition of coal. These ranks are a result of the geological process that has occurred over time, and they have different physical and chemical properties which can be verified by proper testing techniques. It is therefore common in sedimentary rocks that are rich in organic matter, such as shales and marls with a terrigenous origin.

Abrasion testing[ edit ] Abrasion is the property of the coal which describes its propensity and ability to wear away machinery and undergo autonomous grinding.

Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal.

Coal analysis ppt

Coal Testing Coal is one of the primary sources of electricity in India and abroad. Proximate and ultimate analyses done in our state-of-the-art laboratories deliver timely, accurate and independent results from your coal, coke and biofuel samples. It is considered the lowest rank of coal, used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power generation. This differs from the ultimate carbon content of the coal because some carbon is lost in hydrocarbons with the volatiles. There are basically two types of analysis conducted on coal: one is the'Proximate Analysis' and the other is 'Ultimate Analysis'. While carbonaceous matter in coal is relatively soft, quartz and other mineral constituents in coal are quite abrasive. To determine in-place coal tonnages however, it is important to preserve the void space when measuring the specific gravity. Vitrinite forms diagenetically by the thermal alteration of lignin and cellulose in plant cell walls. The residue is weighed, which is the incombustible ash. Knowledge of the density of each coal play is necessary to determine the properties of composites and blends.

Coke is generally formed by destructive distillation of coal, has a higher Carbon content, and it finds use mainly in Steel manufacturing in blast furnaces. This removes high-ash value particle and increases the saleability of the coal as well as its energy content per unit volume.

how to calculate proximate analysis of coal

It consists of maximum carbon but also contains some hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen not driven off with the gases. Most furnaces are designed to remove ash as a powdery residue.

Coal analysis

Do not copy or distribute in any form without explicit permission. Coal macerals are Type 3 and Type 4 Kerogens. Anthracite is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. Crucible swelling index free swelling index [ edit ] The simplest test to evaluate whether a coal is suitable for the production of coke is the free swelling index test. The loss in weight represents moisture. Proximate and ultimate analyses done in our state-of-the-art laboratories deliver timely, accurate and independent results from your coal, coke and biofuel samples. Analysis is fairly straightforward, with the coal thoroughly burnt and the ash material expressed as a percentage of the original weight. Vitrinite reflectance was first studied by coal geologists attempting to determine the thermal maturity, or rank, of coal beds. Thus, coals must be subjected to a float-sink test in the laboratory, which will determine the optimum particle size for washing, the density of the wash liquid required to remove the maximum ash value with the minimum work. Particle size distribution[ edit ] The particle size distribution of milled coal depends partly on the rank of the coal, which determines its brittleness, and on the handling, crushing and milling it has undergone. This removes high-ash value particle and increases the saleability of the coal as well as its energy content per unit volume. Fixed carbon is used as an estimate of the amount of coke that will be yielded from a sample of coal. Ash[ edit ] Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt. Since it replaces combustible matter, it decreases the heat content per kg of coal.
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Coal, Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky