Noroviruses are also called Norwalk-like viruses and caliciviruses.
Heating foods to cooking temperatures kills these viruses. Disease outbreaks among older children and adults occur in camps, schools, nursing homes, military populations, cruise ships, and areas with contaminated drinking or swimming water.
Avoid drinking untreated water.
However, several of these other human caliciviruses are antigenically distinct on the basis of immune electron microscopy studies. Nonflammable alcohol vapor in CO2 systems is used in health care environments where medical electronics would be adversely affected by aerosolized chlorine or other caustic compounds.
One group of individuals, who lacked appreciable serum or intestinal antibodies, persistently failed to develop illness or to mount antibody responses on initial exposure to the virus and after rechallenge up to 3 years later.
Immediately remove and wash soiled clothing or linens after vomiting or having diarrhea.
Norwalk virus infection seems to spare the large intestine, and thus fecal leukocytes are not present in the stool.